In Train Fever, cargo is everything that can be transported by truck or train, excluding passengers. It is only transportable by a certain set of vehicles via a certain set of stations. Cargo appropriate stations can be found in the station construction menu for either tracks or streets. There are five types of cargo in the base game: oil, wood, coal, iron ore and goods. Each of these will move from a starting location to a destination of their own accord very, very slowly, provided it can reach the destination within 20 minutes. However, if the player creates a line between the cargo's source and its destination, the cargo will take the player's line instead. Cargo can be seen moving about the map when the Cargo layer is turned on.

Cargo is produced at factories which have a production limit and an actual production which is affected by supply and demand or raw materials and product.